“Hacienda del Apantle de la Santa Cruz, recuerdos de sus alrededores”
John Womak Jr., like other historians, describes the event that gave place to the final confrontation between the landowners and the people in the state of Morelos: the death, on the 15th of December, 1908, of the governor, Manuel Alarcon and the designation of the Porfirian candidate, Pablo Escandón, backed by the landowners.
Pablo Escandón, the person elected by the landowners, had studied in England and had very refined customs. But the peasants of Morelos also had a candidate: Patricio Leyva. He was the son of General Francisco Leyva, who had participated in the War of Intervention and was very influential in the entire state. Emiliano Zapata, a small owner, known among the landowners because of his skill in taming horses and considered by them as one of their own, was one of the supporters of Patricio Leyva.
The haciendas played a crucial role as places of combat, provisional barracks, warehouses for weapons and production centers, even during the most intense periods of the battle. It’s thought in general that the Zapatistas were the ones who devastated the haciendas, but it was really General Pablo Gonzalez (emulator of Juvencio Robles, the arsonist), who with an uncontrollable rage wanted to eliminate anything similar to revolt. During the most severe stage of the Zapatismo (1915) the farmers worked for themselves, in coordination with the communities and their range of action was precisely the haciendas, therefore this person lashed out against them.
The sugar haciendas hold dear in their aged walls countless events: murders, acts full of heroism, and retaliation. The hacienda of Chinameca carries the shame of being the place where Coronel Guajardo set a trap for Emiliano Zapata; at the hacienda of Tlaltizapan is the mark of the execution of Otilio Montaño, after a process that was never really cleared up. At the hacienda of San Carlos General Benigno N. Zenteno, grandfather of the author of this text, was hanged after a battle against troops of Guajardo himself.
They say that at night you can hear the echo of the ghosts who wander among the ruins and who after four centuries come to give account of the wars of intervention and liberation, of the uncountable bandits, politicians and landowners that lived in the region, of the workers and slaves that were submitted or of the women who were raped, of revolutionaries, adventurers and figures that had their camping ground there, awakening the fear of the people and recreating the richest and most enthralling legends.
When reviewing the history, we see that the hacienda of Temixco functioned as a concentration camp of the Japanese during the Second World War, before it became a rice mill and processor; the hacienda of Casasano, still working, was built on top of and on the side of the archeological ruins; that of Buenavista with its arches enabled as walls for homes, was turned into a rice seeder warehouse of the communal land (ejido). San Carlos keeps the picturesque history of a killer who, when he was drunk, had the custom of shooting at the tower of the church, trying to hit the weathercock that was there, until one day a resentful neighbor decided to put an end to this braggart and killed him.
Hacienda del Apantle de la Santa Cruz: http://www.facebook.com/delapantle.
Muebles Zeromadera: http://www.ramsol.com